How Many Ancestors Share Our DNA?

This post was written four years ago, using a quick-and-dirty model of recombination to answer the question in the title. Since then a more detailed and rigorously tested model has been developed by Graham Coop and colleagues to answer this same question. You can read more about the results of this model on the Coop Lab blog here and here. Graham’s model is based on more accurate data, more careful tracking of multiple ancestors and a more realistic model of per-chromosome recombination, and thus his results should be considered to have superseded mine.

Over at the Genetic Genealogist, Blaine Bettinger has a Q&A post up about the difference between a genetic tree and a genealogical tree. The destinction is that your genealogical tree is the family tree of all your ancestors, but your genetic tree only contains those ancestors that actually left DNA to you. Just by chance, an individual may not leave any DNA to a distance descendant (like a great-great-great-grandchild), and as a result they would not appear on their descendant’s genetic tree, even though they are definitely their genealogical ancestor.

At the end of his post, Blaine asks a couple of questions that he would like to be able to answer in the future;

  • At 10 generations, I have approximately 1024 ancestors (although I know there is some overlap). How many of these ancestors are part of my Genetic Tree? Is it a very small number? A surprisingly large number?
  • What percentage, on average, of an individual’s genealogical tree at X generations is part of their genetic tree?

I think that I can answer those questions, or at least predict what the answers will be, using what we already know about sexual reproduction.

Simulating Sex with Recombination

We can give a simple answer by assuming that each chromosome is passed on intact, with a 50% chance of getting either one from a pair. This gives us a maximum of 44 genetic ancestors, and means that the probability of being related to any particular ancestor N generations ago is 1 – (1 – 0.5N – 1)22. We’d have about 43 genetic ancestors out of 1024 genealogical ancestors after 10 generations.

This is an underestimate; outside of the Y chromosome and the mitochondria, DNA is not passed down as whole chromosomes; recombination occurs, in which chromosomes come together and swap DNA. This mixes up DNA and stop is getting lost, and lets you have DNA from more than 44 genetic ancestors.

To answer Blaine’s two questions, we need to take recombination into account. To do this, I put together a computer simulation of recombination, using data from Chowdhury et al‘s large population study of recombination; they found that recombination rates vary from person to person, and especially between genders, with significantly more recombination in women than in men (see this graph for the data I used). I simulation individuals with the 22 non-sex chromosomes, and each person had their own recombination rate, chosen at random, dependent on their gender. I simulated sexual reproduction with unrelated individuals, and checked whether their DNA was present in their descendants N generations in the future.

The results

Here are the results of the simulation:

sharingprob

This graph shows the probability that an ancestor of mine from N generations ago will pass DNA onto me, i.e. the probability that a genealogical ancestor is also a genetic ancestor. The black line is the simulation with recombination, the red line is our prediction without recombination; as we guessed, recombination increases your chance of being genetically related to your ancestors, though it still drops of pretty dramatically; after 10 generations, only about 12% of your genealogical tree is in your genetic tree.

The probability of having DNA from all of your genealogical ancestors at a particular generation becomes vanishingly small very rapidly; there is a 99.6% chance that you will have DNA from all of your 16 great-great grandparents, only a 54% of sharing DNA with all 32 of your G-G-G grandparents, and a 0.01% chance for your 64 G-G-G-G grandparents. You only have to go back 5 generations for genealogical relatives to start dropping off your DNA tree.

We also care about how many genetic ancestors we have after a certain number of generations, shown below:

Nancestors

The number of genetic ancestors starts off growing exponentially, but eventually flattens out to around 125 (at 10 generations, 120 of your 1024 genealogical ancestors are genetic ancestors).

As a final note, there is an interesting effect of the larger recombination rate in women; you are, on average, slightly more closely related to your maternal line (your maternal grandmother, your mother’s maternal grandmother, etc) than you are to you paternal line (your father’s paternal grandfather, etc). We can see the sharing probability for the maternal line and the paternal line show:

mvflines

You are about 30% more likely to be genetically related to your maternal-line ancestor 10 generations ago than you are the corresponding paternal-line ancestor (14% vs 11%).

My not-very-well-documented R code for this simulation can be found here

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884 Responses to How Many Ancestors Share Our DNA?

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    Last month, 13 June, 2016, to be precise, I went back to the hospital to conduct another test and to my amazement, the results showed that ” I am NEGATIVE”.
    You can free yourself of this HIV virus by consulting this great African Voodoo Priest via this e-mail: IWAJOWATELLERSPELL@YAHOO.COM OR CALL +2348103508204 He will help you and his herb medication is sure.

  19. i am here to give testimony of how i got back my husband, we got married for more than 9 years and have gotten two kids. thing were going well with us and we are always happy. until one day my husband started to behave in a way i could not understand, i was very confused by the way he treat me and the kids. later that month he did not come home again and he called me that he want a divorce, i asked him what have i done wrong to deserve this from him, all he was saying is that he want a divorce that he hate me and do not want to see me again in his life, i was mad and also frustrated do not know what to do,i was sick for more than 2 weeks because of the divorce. i love him so much he was everything to me without him my life is incomplete. i told my sister and she told me to contact a spell caster, i never believe in all this spell casting of a thing. i just want to try if something will come out of it. i contacted Supreme spell temple for the return of my husband to me, he told me that my husband have been taken by another woman, that she cast a spell on him that is why he hate me and also want us to divorce. then he told me that they have to cast a spell on him that will make him return to me and the kids, he casted the spell and after 2days my husband called me and he told me that i should forgive him, he started to apologize on phone and said that he still live me that he did not know what happen to him that he left me. it was the spell that Dr papa casted on him that make him comeback to me today,me and my family are now happy again today. thank you Dr papa for what you have done for me i would have been nothing today if not for your great spell. i want you my friends who are passing through all this kind of love problem of getting back their husband, wife , or ex boyfriend and girlfriend to contact supremetemple(AT)hotmail(DOT)com or visit his website on WWW(DOT)SUPREMETEMPLE(DOT)COM and you will see that your problem will be solved without any delay.

  20. There are powers in herbs, sickness is the greatest enemy on earth .All thanks to Dr uwa , I am here to share a good testimony of my self on how i came in contact with a real herbalist who helped me get rid of my genital herpes permanently. i appreciate everyone for taken their precious time to read my testimony, 3 month ago i was diagnosed of herpes virus, this means that 3 months ago i was herpes positive when i told one of my good friend about this, she sympathized with me and then she said that she was going to help me out, she told me that we should do some research on the internet, we came across Dr uwa and my friend said that she has come across a lot about him and said that he is a real herbalist remedy to all illness, i was really surprised on this and confused as well, I was so speechless and quickly i contact him through his mail at on his email address to help me and he prepared some herbs for me and send it across to me and he told me the way i was going to be taken the medicine which i did, and in the next 2 weeks i went to the hospital and they said that my herpes is totally gone, i am very happy about this, when i contacted Dr uwa again to tell him the good result , i asked him how he was able to help me, and he said that he was gifted with it that he can cure all manners of illness like.
    Below are some of the illness i know he cure:
    1 Cancer
    2 HIV
    3 Low sperm count/Impotency
    4 Barrenness
    5 HVP
    6 Herpes
    7 Genital Wart
    8 Rare disease
    9 Hepatitis
    10 kidney infection
    11 Diabetes
    12 Migraines
    13 ALS
    14 mid stroke
    15 Liver disorder
    16 Hypertension
    17 Infertility
    18 typhoid,
    So i am posting to this forum and also thanking him, saying if you are into similar situation or you have any kind of disease problem listed below you can as well contact him on his mail druwaherbalcenter@gmail.com or call and whatsapp him on phone +2348063930531 is willing and ever ready to help,he is a great herbalist that treats and cure all manners of diseases .Contact him today and get your disease problem solve.Thanks because health is better than wealth

  21. This is real take it serious, who will believe that a herb can cure ten
    years HIV in my body, i navel believe that this will work i have spend a
    lot when getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, what i was
    waiting for is death because i was broke, one day i hard about this great
    man who is well know of HIV and cancer cure, i decided to email him,
    unknowingly to me that this will be the end of the HIV aids in my body, he
    prepare the herb for me, and give me instruction on how to take it, at the
    end of the two week, he told me to go to the hospital for a check up, and i
    went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me negative, i thought
    it was a joke, i went to other hospital was also negative, then i took my
    friend who was also HIV positive to the Dr, after the treatment she was
    also confirm negative . He also have the herb to cure cancer please i want
    every one with this virus to be free, that is why am dropping his email
    address, solutioncenterhome@gmail.com email or call +2347087771434 him he is
    a great man.thank you for saving my life, and is also good in saving you
    from any kind of diseases like Helps,Gonorrhea,Cardiac problem
    Cancer
    Watering sperm
    Womb fertilization
    Penis erection
    Witch craft attack
    S T D diseases
    Internal heat
    Rashes
    Low sperm count
    Dairy
    long time sickness I promise I will always testify for your good work.

  22. NATURAL CURE FOR GENITAL HERPES drshangoherbalcure@gmail.com

    good day everyone,am here to recognized a wonderful man who helped me get cured during my pains and surfering when herpes visited my body system oh my it was a hell of a virus it inches,cold sore,blisters and i don’t feel comfortable over it,how did i get this virus my boy friend pass it to me,i thought of breaking up wth him,but i looked around me even if i break up with him i keep passing it on to GUYS,is like a serial killer,so i went to him told him everything ,what the doctor said and i decided to be strong with him and i love him so much ,so we both agree to look for a cure and after all the drugs the doctors gave we both took the drugs for 4 good years and it didn’t go away,so the doctor advise us to go for an herbal cure or remedy,so we give it a try and went to surf the net and we saw persons that have been cured with the herbs of DR SHANGO.we collected the email and we contacted him and he help us out with the cure,DR SHANGO gave his words to us and followed his instruction and bought the cure 3 days later we recieved the cure through courier service and we both used the cure believe me we were cured from herpes forever without no side effect,so i bid you if you are out there with the same herpes issues please contact with his email address drshangoherbalcure@gmail.com

  23. Marie Joshua

    Greetings to everyone,i am here today to testify to the whole guest on how Dr Suku cured me from Herpes virus,i have been diagnosed having this herpes virus for about 2years now, since i have been having this disease i have not felt like a human,i was told by my doctor there was no cure to cure my herpes virus,i have took many drugs but all to no avail, one day i was just browsing through and i saw many testimonies of Dr Suku cure people herpes,so i contact him and told him about my disease, He assure me that he was going to cure my herpes disease,he prepare some herbal medicine which he sent to me and gave me instruction on how to apply the herbal medicine,which i used for some days and after i went back to my doctor and get tested and behold i was found negative,today i am totally free of herpes virus with Dr Suku herbal medicine, he also cure all kinds of disease,diabetes,hepatitis B,cancer,HIV/AIDS,your disease can also be cure too just contact his email address:greatsukusolutiontemple@hotmail.com or contact his Mobil number +2348074839242.,

  24. I am subbitming this here today to tell everyone one that your dead marriage can be restored with the help of this great man DR. BELLO, I will start by saying to all that have experience heart break and also can’t do without their lover should please stop here and read up my story, So as you will know how to go solving or getting your ex back…Am writing this article to appreciate the good work of Dr BELLO that helped me recently to bring back my fiance. My fiance broke up with me last three month because he thought i was cheating on her, so for the past three month now i have trying to plead with her but she still say the same thing that she does not want us to come back again that she can not trust me so i came in contact with Dr BELLO, who told me that my lover is going to come back to me if i work with him so i did what he ask me to do,after that he will call me that within 17 hours that my lover is going to come back to me,can you believe that my lover is back to me ,she now love me more than before i am so happy, spell is good when you meet Dr BELLO if you need his help contact him at his email bellospelltemple@gmail.com and you can also whatapp him or call with his mobile +2348147271779 and i promise that he is going to help you with any problem OKay

  25. I am subbitming this here today to tell everyone one that your dead marriage can be restored with the help of this great man DR. BELLO, I will start by saying to all that have experience heart break and also can’t do without their lover should please stop here and read up my story, So as you will know how to go solving or getting your ex back…Am writing this article to appreciate the good work of Dr BELLO that helped me recently to bring back my fiance. My fiance broke up with me last three month because he thought i was cheating on her, so for the past three month now i have trying to plead with her but she still say the same thing that she does not want us to come back again that she can not trust me so i came in contact with Dr BELLO, who told me that my lover is going to come back to me if i work with him so i did what he ask me to do,after that he will call me that within 17 hours that my lover is going to come back to me,can you believe that my lover is back to me ,she now love me more than before i am so happy, spell is good when you meet Dr BELLO if you need his help contact him at his email bellospelltemple@gmail.com and you can also whatapp him or call with his mobile +2348147271779 and i promise that he is going to help you with any problem OKay

  26. ZIKA DISEASE

    God bless Dr.UKO for his marvelous work in my life, I was diagnosed of ZIKA DISEASES since 2014 and I was taking my medications, I wasn’t satisfied i needed to get the ZIKA out of my system, I searched about some possible cure for ZIKA DISEASES i saw a comment about Dr.UKO, how he cured ZIKA DISEASES with his herbal medicine, I contacted him and he guided me. I asked for solutions, he started the remedy for my health, he sent me the medicine through UPS SPEED POST. I took the medicine as prescribed by him and 7 days later i was cured from ZIKA DISEASES, Dr. UKO truly you are great, do you need his help also? Why don’t you contact him through ukospelltemple@yahoo.com whatsapp him on

    +2347064650019

    DOCTOR UKO CAN AS WELL CURE THE FOLLOWING DISEASE:-

    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. HERPES
    3. CANCER
    4. ALS
    5. AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
    6. ANTHRAX
    7. PLAGUE
    8. EBOLA
    9. BRING OF EX LOVER BACK TO LOVE YOU AGAIN

    ukospelltemple@yahoo.com

  27. Goodday
    My name is tracy from united states, i am here to thank DR okonnofua the powerful spell caster that rescue me from HIV. I was diagnosed of this disease in the year 2014, and because of this, i was very unhappy with my life, and i went into research on how i can get cured, i contacted a lot of spell casters and none of them could help me rather they scammed me and took away my money without helping me. All this period of my life, i was sad and unhappy so one day as i was in the internet a decided to sign in a friend guestbook, only for me to see was a testimony of a lady on how she was helped by DR.OKONNOFUA , so i was confused to contact him at the moment because i didn’t want to be scammed again but after one week, i decided to contact him, so when i contacted him, he assure me that he will help me and i told him that many spell casters has also told me this but they all scammed me, he told me not to worry that he is going to help me, So i believe in him because all i wanted was to be cured, so he prepared a healing spell for me and told me to wait for just 24 hours, after 24 hours, i went to the hospital for test and to me happiness the test stated that i was cured from the disease.. This gladdens my heart and everybody in the hospital was surprised even the Medical Doctor, So viewers DR OKONNOFUA is a God Gifted man and can help you to cure all types of sickness like HIV AIDS, CANCER, PILE, Kidney problem, Syphilis and lot’s more. You can contact him through his email on (dr.okonnofua@gmail.com) or you call him +2348102380983 For more details

  28. My HIV virus that was cured by a great herbal medicine man. Since last 7 months i was having these virus. last 5 weeks I was in a great pain so I told one of my friends about it he told me that there is a great herbal medicine man that can cure HIV and so many diseases and he also help people in getting pregnant and bringing back EX. I asked her if she had the contact so i could give it a try, she gave me the email osasspellcaster@gmail.com , I emailed him he talked to me and he perform the necessary rituals and he send me the herbal medicine and herbal soap via DHL service to my country told me how i will be using the herbal soap and drinking the herbs and after few weeks I should go for a test. Which I did, when the doctor told me that am now HIV negative I couldn’t believe myself I went to see another doctor the result was still the same i couldn’t keep this to myself so i decided to let it out on this page that if anyone here need help in curing his/her HIV virus or trying to conceive should also contact him he also have herbal cream for penis engagement once again you can email him osasspellcaster@gmail.com or WhatSAP him via his mobile number +2349036919200 or osasspellcaster@gmail.com

  29. Rugarcia Delatorre

    HERBAL HERPES CURE IS REAL

    Read up….

    Hello every one in this forum,my name is Rugarcia Delatorre from USA Chicago,I am here to give my testimony about a herbalist doctor who helped me in my life. I was infected with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS this year 2016,i went to many hospitals for cure but there was no solution,so I was thinking how can I get a solution out so that my body can be okay,One day I was in the river side thinking where I can go to get solution,so a lady walked to me telling me why am I so sad and i open up all to her telling her my problem,she told me that she can help me introduce me to a doctor who use herbal medication to cure HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS and gave me his email,so i email him, he told me all the things I need to do and also give me instructions to take,which I followed properly,Before I knew what is happening after two days the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS that was in my body got vanished,so if you are also heart broken and also need a help,you can also email him at:eduduherpescure@gmail.com you can also add him on whatsApp +2348067101348 he also have a herbal cure for HIV Contact him today and you will have a testimony…Good luck

  30. NICHOLAS BETTY

    Hello every one out here….
    My name is Mandy Laira am from USA. i want to use this opportunity to thank my great spell caster who really made my life a pleasurable today. This great man Dr. Ogbefi brought my husband back to me, i had three lovely kids for my husband, about four years ago i and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me for one lady. i felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, until one day i met a good friend of mine that was also in a situation like me but her problem was her ex-boyfriend who she had an unwanted pregnancy for and he refused to take responsibility and dumped her. she told me that mine was a small case and that i should not worry about it at all, so i asked her what was the solution to my problems and she gave me this great man email address. i was doubting if this man was the solution, so i contacted this great man and he told me what to do and i deed them all, he told me to wait for just two day and that my husband will come crawling on his kneels just for forgiveness so i faithfully deed what this great man asked me to do and for sure after two days i heard a knock on the door, in a great surprise i saw him on his kneels and i was speechless, when he saw me, all he did was crying and asking me for forgiveness, from that day, all the pains and sorrows in my heart flew away,since then i and my husband and our lovely kids are happy.that’s why i want to say a big thank you to solutionoflovespelltemple@hotmail.com. This great man made me to understand that there is no problem on earth that has no solution so please if you know that you have this same problem or any problem that is similar, i will advise you to come straight to this great man. you can email him at: solutionoflovespelltemple@hotmail.com And also his WhatsApp Number: +2348056932763

  31. I am Annabelle from united kingdom i am here to thank DOCTOR PRINCE the powerful doctor that rescue me from HERPES. I have been suffering from Genetic herpes since 2014, and because of this, i was very unhappy with my life, and i went into research on how i can get cured, i contacted a lot of spell casters and herbal doctors and none of them could help me rather they scammed me and took away my money without helping me. All this period of my life, i was sad and unhappy so one day as i was in the INTERNET i decided to sign in a friend guest book, only for me to see a testimony of a lady on how she was helped by DOCTOR PRINCE so i was confused to contact him at the moment because i didn’t want to be scammed again but after one week, i decided to contact him, so when i contacted him, he assured me that he will help me and i told him that many herbal doctors has also told me this but they all scammed me, he told me not to worry that he is going to help me, So i believed in him because all i wanted was to be cured, so he prepared the herbal antidote for me. There after, he told me to send him my residential address, because he was going to send the herbal antidote to me true the DHL. There after, after i have sent him my address, he went and send me the herbal medication and gave me instructions on how to apply the herbal medication. I received the herbal medicine 2 days later, so i started applying according to his instructions . After 2 weeks, i discovered that the herpes dried up. so i went to the hospital for test and to my happiness the test stated that i was herpes free(FREE FROM HERPES).. This gladens my heart and everybody in the hospital was surprised even the Medical Doctor,DOCTOR PRINCE is a God Gifted man and can help you to cure all types of sickness like HERPES, H I V, CANCER, PILE, Kidney problem, Syphilis and lot’s more. You can contact him through his email on DR.PRINCEARATAABRAHAM@GMAIL.COM you can also whatsapp him or call him at +2348163241499.

  32. Hello, My name is Eric,I am very happy for posting on this blog on how a great spell caster helped me in bringing back the love of my life. I know there are lots of Man like me out there who have done so much to have back their Wife, I am here to tell you all to search no further because the answer is right here. I sincerely believe if there are up to five spell caster like Dr Shedi this world would be a better place, I have seen people complaining on how fake spell castes promised to help them but couldn’t but with Dr Shedi I tell you your problem is solved already.My Wife and I had been apart for 3 YEARS and I couldn’t bear without living without him, I have tried everything to have her back but nothing was working until I saw numerous testimonies about a spell caster called Dr Shedi and how great his work is. I contacted him via emai (shedispellcaster@gmail.com) immediately and follow the step that he ask and in the next 4days my Wife called me and was eager for my forgiveness and that she wished nothing more than to have me in his arms forever. I filled so much joy and happiness that I found Dr Shedi I hope you all here will find this testimony of mine and get your Wife back in just 3days thanks he is specialized in any kind of spell… contact his email: shedispellcaster@gmail.com an visit his blog shedispell.blogspot.com THANKS

  33. jenifer jerry

    TESTIMONY OF HOW I GOT CURED FROM HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS AND HIV
    i am so happy to share this testimony with the world because generally there are so many doubts about the cure of HIV and HERPES simplex virus This is real take it serious,my name is Jennifer jerry and i am so happy that today i can give this testimony to the world and also help in saving life of people who has been condemned for death just as i was ,who will believe that a herb can cure HERPES and HIV VIRUS completely from the body , i never believe that this will work, i have spend a lot of money getting drugs from the hospital to keep me healthy, it got to a time that all i was waiting for is death to come because i was broke and i already have strong outbreaks from the herpes virus, one day i was going through the net asking questions online just to know more about the latest development in the medical sector to see if there is still hope then i stumbled on a post about about this great man called DR.ODINAKA through an online friend who publicly made a testimony on how she was also cured of herpes simplex virus2 by this herbal doctor who is well known for his strong ancient herbal practice for HERPES, HIV, and CANCER cure,at first i doubted both the woman and the doctor just as so many that see’s this post would doubt because medically it has been proven impossible but later i decided to give him a try so i emailed him I did not believe him that much, I just wanted to give him a try, he replied my mail and Needed some Information about me, then I sent them to him, he prepared a herbal medicine (CURE) and sent it through Online Courier Service for delivery, he gave my details to the Courier Office. they told me that 3-5 days I will receive the package and after receiving it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him at the end of 13days that the medicine lasted, he told me to go to the hospital for a test, and i went, surprisingly after the test the doctor confirm me Herpes simplex virus and HIV negative, i thought it was a joke, i went to other hospitals and was also negative the doctors were speechless and said it was a miracle, thank you sir for saving my life even if you cannot see this post i shall never stop testifying the impact you made in my life by restoring back my life when i was being stigmatized and even avoided by family and friends , I promise I will always testify of your good works. if you are herpes simplex virus or HIV patient, contact him and I am sure you will get cured, contact him via: emaill at [ odinakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com ] OR YOU CAN CALL HIM ON THES PHONE NUMBER (+2340815217305)THESE ARE THE THINGS DR.odinaka IS SPECIALISED . HERPES . HIV/AIDS . CANCER
    KIDNEY STONES
    ULCER
    PORT-RATE DISORDER
    DIABETES
    LOVE SPELLS TO BRING BACK EX LOVERS [HUSBANDS OR WIFE’S

  34. Derek Taylor

    I’m Derek Taylor from Ohio,am so happy to say DR Abumere has done it again,he cured me and my wife from hepatitis b,now he just cured my uncle from COPD ,My uncle is now living COPD FREE, me and my wife was diagnosed with Hepatitis b in 2011,then my uncle was diagnosed of COPD 2013, my doctor said there’s no cure for Hepatitis b and COPD.we spent a lot of money on medication till one day , I saw someone post about Dr Abumere,so many people was talking about His herbal medicine that he cures different kinds of deadly diseases including hepatitis b and COPD,so decided to try ,so i contacted him via his email:abumereherbalcentre(at)gmail(dot)com,so he replied me,and told me that he will cure me within 4 weeks ,then i purchased the herbal medicine and he sent the herbal medicine to me via courier service,which i received within 2days.so after 4 weeks of usage ,then we went for check-up and doctor confirmed we are totally cured. The medicine has NO SIDE EFFECT, there’s no special diet when taking the medicine.please viewers out there this post is 100% real ..he also cures HERPES,ALS,MND,EPILEPSY,LEUKEMIA,ASTHMA,,GONORRHEA,,EMPHYSEMA,GENITAL WARTS,PARKINSON”S, and lots more.contacted him via his email:abumereherbalcentre@gmail.com
    wish you good luck

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