How Many Ancestors Share Our DNA?

This post was written four years ago, using a quick-and-dirty model of recombination to answer the question in the title. Since then a more detailed and rigorously tested model has been developed by Graham Coop and colleagues to answer this same question. You can read more about the results of this model on the Coop Lab blog here and here. Graham’s model is based on more accurate data, more careful tracking of multiple ancestors and a more realistic model of per-chromosome recombination, and thus his results should be considered to have superseded mine.

Over at the Genetic Genealogist, Blaine Bettinger has a Q&A post up about the difference between a genetic tree and a genealogical tree. The destinction is that your genealogical tree is the family tree of all your ancestors, but your genetic tree only contains those ancestors that actually left DNA to you. Just by chance, an individual may not leave any DNA to a distance descendant (like a great-great-great-grandchild), and as a result they would not appear on their descendant’s genetic tree, even though they are definitely their genealogical ancestor.

At the end of his post, Blaine asks a couple of questions that he would like to be able to answer in the future;

  • At 10 generations, I have approximately 1024 ancestors (although I know there is some overlap). How many of these ancestors are part of my Genetic Tree? Is it a very small number? A surprisingly large number?
  • What percentage, on average, of an individual’s genealogical tree at X generations is part of their genetic tree?

I think that I can answer those questions, or at least predict what the answers will be, using what we already know about sexual reproduction.

Simulating Sex with Recombination

We can give a simple answer by assuming that each chromosome is passed on intact, with a 50% chance of getting either one from a pair. This gives us a maximum of 44 genetic ancestors, and means that the probability of being related to any particular ancestor N generations ago is 1 – (1 – 0.5N – 1)22. We’d have about 43 genetic ancestors out of 1024 genealogical ancestors after 10 generations.

This is an underestimate; outside of the Y chromosome and the mitochondria, DNA is not passed down as whole chromosomes; recombination occurs, in which chromosomes come together and swap DNA. This mixes up DNA and stop is getting lost, and lets you have DNA from more than 44 genetic ancestors.

To answer Blaine’s two questions, we need to take recombination into account. To do this, I put together a computer simulation of recombination, using data from Chowdhury et al‘s large population study of recombination; they found that recombination rates vary from person to person, and especially between genders, with significantly more recombination in women than in men (see this graph for the data I used). I simulation individuals with the 22 non-sex chromosomes, and each person had their own recombination rate, chosen at random, dependent on their gender. I simulated sexual reproduction with unrelated individuals, and checked whether their DNA was present in their descendants N generations in the future.

The results

Here are the results of the simulation:

sharingprob

This graph shows the probability that an ancestor of mine from N generations ago will pass DNA onto me, i.e. the probability that a genealogical ancestor is also a genetic ancestor. The black line is the simulation with recombination, the red line is our prediction without recombination; as we guessed, recombination increases your chance of being genetically related to your ancestors, though it still drops of pretty dramatically; after 10 generations, only about 12% of your genealogical tree is in your genetic tree.

The probability of having DNA from all of your genealogical ancestors at a particular generation becomes vanishingly small very rapidly; there is a 99.6% chance that you will have DNA from all of your 16 great-great grandparents, only a 54% of sharing DNA with all 32 of your G-G-G grandparents, and a 0.01% chance for your 64 G-G-G-G grandparents. You only have to go back 5 generations for genealogical relatives to start dropping off your DNA tree.

We also care about how many genetic ancestors we have after a certain number of generations, shown below:

Nancestors

The number of genetic ancestors starts off growing exponentially, but eventually flattens out to around 125 (at 10 generations, 120 of your 1024 genealogical ancestors are genetic ancestors).

As a final note, there is an interesting effect of the larger recombination rate in women; you are, on average, slightly more closely related to your maternal line (your maternal grandmother, your mother’s maternal grandmother, etc) than you are to you paternal line (your father’s paternal grandfather, etc). We can see the sharing probability for the maternal line and the paternal line show:

mvflines

You are about 30% more likely to be genetically related to your maternal-line ancestor 10 generations ago than you are the corresponding paternal-line ancestor (14% vs 11%).

My not-very-well-documented R code for this simulation can be found here

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506 Responses to How Many Ancestors Share Our DNA?

  1. How do the simulations change when there are 2, 3, 4…. common ancestors present within specific generations? What you provide is the theoretical minimum.

  2. Great, thanks! Your first chart above addresses one side of the issue: Given recombination, what is the probability you will inherit NO DNA from a given ancestor x generations back?
    The other side: Given recombination, and given that you KNOW you inherited y cM of autosomal DNA from a particular line of ancestors, what is the probability you will inherit AT LEAST y cM of DNA from an ancestor x generations back? This plot should look quite different, and I guess it should depend on the length of the chromosome involved, right?

    If so, can you at least give a simplified answer, assuming an average autosome length?

  3. Doh, can you tell it has been a while since my last genetics class? I guess the answer to my question above (which describes the situation of many 23andMe /DecodeMe customers) basically comes directly from the definition of a centimorgan. Feel free to delete the question.

  4. “….you are, on average, slightly more closely related to your maternal line (your maternal grandmother, your mother’s maternal grandmother, etc) than you are to you paternal line (your father’s paternal grandfather, etc).”

    Cool.

    But, aren’t most people going to be more like their fathers, then, than their mothers since they should inherit more directly *groups* or *packages* of genes that did not recombine (i.e. that remain linked)?

  5. Was pleased to read about girls being closer to the maternal line. . .

  6. I am a female and more closely related to my paternal line, 53.13%, according to Relative Finder. Almost everyone of my matches comes from my father’s side.
    Some of his relatives, I am even more related to because of the recombination. On the average, it looks as though I may lose a few cm’s with most; although, many of our matches have remained exactly the same.
    One particular high/distant cousin match for him, totally disappears for me.
    All very interesting!

  7. Pingback: Using Genome-Wide SNP Scans to Explore Your Genetic Heritage

  8. You are showing a point estimate but it would be nice to see the range of values. Can you repost the plots with 95% prediction intervals?

  9. Does it mean that ethnic affinities derived from autosomal DNA data are also that recent? (10-12 generations)

  10. This information really revolutionizes our thinking about our ancestors, and it has been fun to study what you have done with this simulation.

    It is known that recombination is not equal across the genome, and there are known recombination hotspots. It would be interesting to see how this analysis would look if you incorporated recombination rates across the genome. All of the data is accessible from HapMap’s website http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/recombination/latest/rates/

    Also, it is strange to me that you see such a leveling off in number of ancestors at 125, it even looks like the number of ancestors drops a little at 15 generations. Does your code include a minimum threshold for being identified as a relative? Otherwise, I don’t think that is possible.

    Nice work, I hope you could generate a simulation with the recombination rate data, because it is way out of my league to try something like that.

  11. We have about 3.08 billion base pairs. Therefore, we have about 6.16 billion bases and over 30 generations before we have to make a choice between one ancestor and another, one allele and another, at a particular base pair.

    About 30 generations at about 30 years per generation is about 900 years. 900 years ago our world population was between 310 million and 790 million. It is likely no more than 2/3rds of those have descendents to the present, given the effect of the plagues that happened between 900 years ago and now.

    Without inbreeding, however, at 30 generations you have 1,073,741,824 ancestors. If the whole world were in your ancestry, then you would still have many cases of “inbreeding” with sixth cousins, seven times removed.

    However, even if there were only 30 ethnic groups in relative reproductive isolation from each other, until the last 200 years there has been very little genetic sharing between groups. There was not much interbreeding, for instance, between native Americans and Mongolians 200 years ago. Genealogical ancestry does not extend much beyond 400 years ago.

    Therefore, we can say that your genetic ancestors and your genealogical ancestors are in the same set and equivalent.

  12. @John Lloyd Scharf

    We have about 3.08 billion base pairs. Therefore, we have about 6.16 billion bases and over 30 generations before we have to make a choice between one ancestor and another, one allele and another, at a particular base pair.

    No that’s not how it works. You don’t have 3.08bn independent base pairs, you have 22 independent autosomes, the bases within which have a correlation structure dependent on recombination.

  13. SO THIS MEANS IF A WOMAN WERE ABLE TO TRAVEL BACK IN TIME AND HAVE SEX WITH A DIRECT ANCESTOR AND BECOME IMPREGNATED BY HIM SHE COULD THEORETICALLY HAVE A COMPLETELY NORMAL CHILD?

  14. @Luke: This to me seems one of the main blog entries about genetics. I think a work-up of the issue in a scientific paper would be worth. So many write about Admixture between populations and do PCA etc, but the basic knowledge about the statistical correlations in autosomal DNA inheritance seems to me still rudimentary.
    A similar study related to the X chromosome (X-DNA) would be very interesting. The number of potential ancestors indeed follows an interesting pattern and only 2/3 recombine: 1 (male), 2 (female), 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144

    @Hanna: Already by the known simplified inheritance models you share ca. 12.5% of the DNA with first cousins. The same like with your Great-grandparents. So I guess there will be the same probability of normal childs if timetravels would be possible or the use of gametes of ancestors.

  15. Martha Lyle

    I halfway think I understand this! I’m wondering how the genetic inheritance and Y-DNA are related. My brother has been tested for Y-DNA, and matches 67 markers, confirming that our ancestor, who came to America in 1656, was from Sweden (95% accuracy). Does this high marker match have any relationship to the percentage of inherited genetics. As I read the material above I think I am seeing that my brother has only 11% of the ancestor’s DNA inheritance. I guess my question is, would this percentage be any higher based on the Y-DNA?

  16. Helena Oksanen

    Hi, This article make sense and I have match for one father but not to their children and we don´t share X -chromosome at all! So it seems to be like your results says.

  17. There are four Canadian Algonquin Indian Natives in my ancestry from the 1600′s to 1700′s. Is it possible that a DNA could register an ‘Indian’ presence in my genome from that long-ago time? Not that I can justify the cost of DNA however, the data I have comes from reliable archival journals written and kept by Jesuits in Church records and libraries and in Franco-American Society records in cities where there is a strong number of Franco-American residents. Thank you. AliceMary

  18. gene are the base of life whose contain the informations. deos it is possible to know who were the first human race (means african or american or indians or egyptians)

  19. i wanna to know that after the origin first the algae orignates ,and from there all the species has originated but why only aur ancestors has evolved not the other species espacially in mental level .only the humans had evolved at the mental level that is only one species but from the origin of life many species had come earlier and after us ,but our ancestors the aps had developed only at that time the they were animals too.what was the especial in the aps.

  20. I want to ask, if my great grandfather is a Portuguese, will I still b a Portuguese if their son and granddaughter married a Chinese?

  21. I was wondering if someone is directly of royal descent from thier paternal grandfather, and paternal grandmother, into them by way of thier father (3000 years ago), is the king’s dna still inside of them

  22. I did the family finder test. I got over 150 matches, including 4 women who “supposedly” are 2nd cousins!!! Well, I know who my 2nd cousins are on both sides, and these 4 women are not amongst them. Furthermore, our connection must be way further back than 2nd cousins, because their ancestors are from places that are nowhere near my ancestral locations, and my tree goes back a long way. Does anyone have an explanation for these 4 matches? When I called the company I was assured their results are accurate and if not 2nd cousins, they should at least be 3rd cousins – not a chance! Of course, since I am 100% Jewish, the matches were about 95% all Jewish, and 5% with some Jewish ancestry.

  23. What percent of my great great grandfather’s genes do I have?

  24. My maternal side, the results are B2 with a direct line from myself (male) going straight to my 3rd great grandmother (Native American) born in 1833. There are no males in the line until myself. Therefore, how much of this Native American connects to me and how far back does it go? The various DNA sites have me with matches Eastern/Southern Asia and the entire Americas. How would this look on a line graph? I have many 1st thru 5th cousins plus two of my mother’s sisters on my relative list. Some of these I have never met but we know our common ancestors. on my mothers side.

    I am now beginning to work on the paternal of which I have many 3rd thru 5th cousins who I chat with. I will likely need a half sibling, aunt or uncle to confirm both my father and common ancestor with those on this line.

  25. Rhonda Parker

    I am interested in hearing the answer to James’ question above about royal or any other lineage 800 to 1000 years ago. I have a ancestry.com issue with many people highjacking a prominant line of an ancestor of mine. Our haplogroup doesn’t even match them, but we are seeing the family names from our DNA matches on 12 to 24 markers that would confirm the family names and geographic locations also demonstrated by our documentation. I am now trying to go all the way back to Devonshire England and even the Norman invasion to reconfirm my family tree. Do these further back matches count? How much?

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  29. The black line is the simulation with recombination, the red line is our prediction without recombination; as we guessed, recombination increases your chance of being genetically related to your ancestors. The exact is disclosed with DNA test. A DNA test that is simple and accurate is needed for it.

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    would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only
    real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and
    who is different from all the other ones out there.So friends my advise is if you have such problem you can email him on (drigbololovespell@gmail.com) or call him with +2347030939956.. THESE ARE THE THINGS DR IGBOLO CAN ALSO DO CURING OF HERPES, GONORRHEA, HIV/AIDS , LOW SPERM COUNT, MENOPAUSE DISEASE, PREGNANCY PROBLEM, SHORT SIGHTEDNESS PROBLEM, STROKE. Sir i am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend my friends to you.

  38. LOTTERY JACKPOT
    Straight away after Dr.Magiclotto cast the Lottery spell for me, I felt enveloped by the control of the spell. This spell change my life into riches. I am now out of debts and experiencing the most amazing good luck with lottery after i won a huge amount of money. I have more luck now than I ever had in my life. i won 1.300.000 million pounds. Your Lottery spell made wonders, I can’t believe it. Thank you so much sir for dedicating your time to cast the Lottery spell for me.”I am eternally grateful for the lottery spell Dr.Magiclotto did for me. You can email him for you own lottery number: magiclottospellhome@gmail.com

  39. am sanjeeta from UK I want to use this opportunity to sharing this great testimonies with you to all the viewers in the world, The best thing that has ever happened in my life is how i win the lottery. I am a man who believe that one day i will win the lottery.finally my dreams came through when i email dr. clement and tell him i need the lottery numbers. i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never know that winning was so easy until the day i meant the spell caster online which so many people has talked about that he is very great in casting lottery spell, so i decide to give it a try.I contacted this man and he did a spell and he gave me the winning lottery numbers. But believe me when the draws were out i was among winners. i win $107million. dr.clement truly you are the best, with these man you can will millions of money through lottery. so contact him if you want to winning this same way i win,is email address:drakugbespellhome@gmail.com or call via +254704881207

  40. i am Mary Brannon by name. Greetings to every one that is reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my husband after three(3) years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer. one day when i was reading through the web, i saw a post on how this spell caster on this address salvationlovespell@gmail.com , have help a woman to get back her husband and i gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 2 days that i will have my husband back. i believed him and today i am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back. because i am now happy with my husband. Thanks for Dr.paul . His email:salvationlovespell@gmail.com

  41. get your urgent Affordable loan that will change your life for ever,I am MR birry a certified loan lender,I offer loan to individual and public sector that are in need of financial Assistance in a low interest rate of 2%. Bad credit acceptable,The Terms and Conditions are very simple and considerate.You will never regret anything in this loan transaction because i will make you smile. Our company has recorded a lot of breakthroughs in the provision of first class financial services to our clients, especially in the area of Loan syndication and capital provision for individuals and companies. We have brought ailing industries back to life and we back good business ideas by providing funds for their up start. We have a network of Investors that are willing to provide funds of whatever amount to individuals and organizations to start business and operations.i want you to understand the fact that i MR birry is out to help the less financial privilege get back on track by providing all type of loans to them (E.G) mortgages, home loans business loans and bad credit loans commercial loans, start-up working capital loans, construction loans ,car loans, hotel loans,and student loans, personal loans, Debts Consolidation Loans, what are you waiting for asap why don’t you try. MR birry Loan home and be free from debts any interested client should contact me asap (birrylapomicrofianacebank@gmail.com

  42. After being in relationship for so many years,my husband broke up
    with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in
    vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I
    begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I
    explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should
    rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring
    him back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had no
    choice than to try it, I emailed the spell caster, and he told me there
    was no problem that everything will be okay before seven days, that my
    ex will return to me before seven days, he cast the spell and
    surprisingly in the six day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I
    was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was
    so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to
    him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that
    was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have
    made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I
    would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only
    real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and
    who is different from all the other ones out there.So friends my advise is if you have such problem you can email him on (druduehilovespell@gmail.com) or call him with +2348068540264.. THESE ARE THE THINGS DR UDUEHI CAN ALSO DO CURING OF HERPES, GONORRHEA, HIV/AIDS , LOW SPERM COUNT, MENOPAUSE DISEASE, PREGNANCY PROBLEM, SHORT SIGHTEDNESS PROBLEM, STROKE. Sir i am indeed grateful for the help, i will forever recommend my friends to you.

  43. Kathie Sherine

    How Dr Eboehi The Great Spell Caster help Bring Back My Ex Lover: Husband

    Hello My name is Kathie Sherine, Am from USA, Texas. and I am very happy for posting on this blog on how a great spell caster helped me in bringing back the love of my life. I know there are lots of women like me out there who have done so much to have back their Husband, I am here to tell you all to search no further because the answer is right here. I sincerely believe if there are up to five spell casters like Dr Eboehi this world would be a better place, I have seen people complaining on how fake spell castes promised to help them but couldn’t but with Dr Eboehi I tell you your problem is solved already. My Husband and I had been apart for 3 YEARS and I couldn’t bear without living without him, I have tried everything to have him back but nothing was working until I saw numerous testimonies about a spell caster called Dr Eboehi and how great his work is. I contacted him via email (eboehispellcaster@yahoo.com) immediately and follow the step that he ask and in the next 48 hours my lover called me and was eager for my forgiveness and that he wished nothing more than to have me in his arms forever. I filled so much joy and happiness that I found Dr Eboehi, I hope you all here will find this testimony of mine and get your husband back in just 48 hours thanks… contact his email: eboehispellcaster@yahoo.com or call (208) 627-4749

  44. Unimaginable and unbelievable. I am Tracy Jones from the United States and i have a good news to share to the entire world. Do you need your ex husband or lover urgently? I wanna tell you that you need not to worry because i have a good news for those out there that are faced or similar to such situation because there is always a hope and a solution to all problem. There is a great spell caster called Dr Eku who can really solve your problem. Getting my lover back is what i can’t imagine but when I was losing Newton, I needed help and somewhere to turn badly but my Aunty told me about this spell caster who also helped her on the internet. I thought it won’t work but i just tried to give this man a chance and i ordered a LOVE SPELL. Two days later, my phone rang. Newton was his old self again and wanted to come back to me! Not only come back, the spell caster opened him up to know how much I loved and needed him. This Spell Casting isn’t brainwashing, but he opened up his eyes to know how much we have to share together. I recommend anyone who is in my old situation to try him because he will help you and make things be the way it ought to be. If you have such problem or similar to this, please contact him on his email
    drekuperfectspells@yahoo.com and just visit DREKUPERFECTSPELLS.blogspot.com and see so many people testifying about his perfect work. thank you Dr Eku and may your gods ever reward you for your good deeds..

  45. Allen cynthian

    After being in relationship for 3 years,my husband broke up
    with me, I did everything possible to bring him back but all was in
    vain, I wanted him back so much because of the love I have for him, I
    begged him with everything, I made promises but he refused. I
    explained my problem to someone online and she suggested that I should
    rather contact a spell caster that could help me cast a spell to bring
    him back but I am the type that never believed in spell, I had no
    choice than to try it, I mailed the spell caster, and he told me there
    was no problem that everything will be okay before three days, that my
    ex will return to me before three days, he cast the spell and
    surprisingly in the second day, it was around 4pm. My ex called me, I
    was so surprised, I answered the call and all he said was that he was
    so sorry for everything that happened, that he wanted me to return to
    him, that he loves me so much. I was so happy and went to him, that
    was how we started living together happily again. Since then, I have
    made promise that anybody I know that have a relationship problem, I
    would be of help to such person by referring him or her to the only
    real and powerful spell caster who helped me with my own problem and
    who is different from all the other ones out there. Anybody could need
    the help of the spell caster, his email is drnwamalovespell@gmail.com
    you can email him if you need his assistance in your relationship or
    any other problem.

  46. I want to testify of the good work of Dr Iyere, who helped me in achieving the thing i never thought i was going to have again. I was in a relationship for 3 years with a boy i believed he loved me more than anything in thing in the world after a while i noticed some changes in him things that he will not even notice he started nagging about them so i knew something was wrong i tried to please him in several was but yet no outcome. shortly i noticed he was seeing another girl i tried to make him understand that i loved him so much but he wouldn’t even listen. one day i read a testimony on a similar case a person testifying of the work of this great Dr Iyere, even when i did not believe i was convinced by my friend so i contacted him and tried his method reluctantly surprisingly in less than one week my lover contacted me and till date we are still together happily married. so if you are going through a similar thing or you have a problem just contact him i guarantee you he will help you here is his email: (dr.iyere@hotmail.com) or call +2348059589187

  47. [ HELLO EVERYONE HERE be careful there are so many scams here ok.. ]
    I have a testimony to share with you only if you are willing to listen to me, My name is Lona from canada. I have been having problems in some aspect of my life which almost led me to commit suicide, several time I applied for jobs and each time I was turn down, it come to a point that my Wife left me for another Man and this made me to have high blood pressure (B.P). One day as I was looking for job online in the internet I came across a testimonial of a woman how a great spell caster called dr odinaka help her with his spell to solve her problems so I decided to contact the Spell caster ( dr odinaka ) by mail. I narrated all my story to him and the only thing he told me was don’t worry because your problems are solve already. for you have made the right choice of contacting me. I filled his form and provide the item he requested from me for the preparation of the spell to get me a good job, bring my ex back and also to heal my high blood pressure (B.P) and today my brothers and sisters that are reading this I am very glad to say that dr odinaka is a God on earth. I have a good Job now, My wife is back and I am healed of my High Blood Pressure (B.P). Do you have problems and you think all hope is gone, I advise you to contact dr odinaka today and your problems will be solve just as he solve mine . dr odinaka email is:odinakaspiritualtemple@gmail.com.

  48. i am very happy today for what God used
    doctor aza an India spell caster to do in my
    life. i had misunderstanding with my
    husband in the past and so it led to us
    breaking up for 3 years but one day i saw a
    post of Mrs Rebeca who posted on the
    internet that Doctor aza an India spell
    caster helped her with a spell that brought
    her Husband back so i decided to contact
    Doctor aza the India Spell caster to help
    me and he assured me that my Husband
    will come back to me luckily today i am very
    glade to write on this wall that Nick my
    husband has come back to me as the India
    spell caster Doctor aza said. Do you have a
    problem with you Husband, boy friend, girl
    friend, relations or in your office and you
    think you have lost them?worry no more
    because Doctor aza the India spell caster
    can help you just as he helped me bring my
    Husband back okay. contact Doctor aza
    today via email: azaspellcaster@gmail.com or call +2348107155060………..

  49. I want to use this opportunity to sharing this great testimonies with you, The best thing that has ever happened in my life is how i win the lottery. I am a man who believe that one day i will win the lottery.finally my dreams came through when i email Dr. DESTING and tell him i need the lottery numbers. i have come a long way spending money on ticket just to make sure i win. But i never know that winning was so easy until the day i meant the spell caster online which so many people has talked about that he is very great in casting lottery spell, so i decide to give it a try.I contacted this man and he did a spell and he gave me the winning lottery numbers. But believe me when the draws were out i was among winners. i win $107 million. Dr.DESTINY truly you are the best, with these man you can will millions of money through lottery. so contact him if you want to winning the way i win,is email address :greatdestinylottohome@yahoo.com This is one of the best thing that has every happen to me in my life cause this is my first time ever to play lottery and i win.greatdestinylottohome@yahoo.com is the only answer to that your problem of winning the lottery.

  50. My name is Tranelle Leon. I am from USA i am here to spread the entire work of a real spell caster called Dr Abu who just helped me to retrieve back my union with my husband and make our relationship very stronger and brought joy and happiness into our marriage. I have been scammed by a lot of fake spell casters but i was later introduced to Dr. Abu by a friend named Tammy smith to this great man who help her to restore her relationship back with his husband.He also help me and wipe away my tears. So viewers of this wonderful testimony who wants to contact him via email oruentempleofpowers@gmail.com

    1. GETTING YOUR EX LOVER BACK.
    2. DIVORCE SPELL.
    3. WINNING LOTTERIES.
    4. BREAKING OF GENERATION COURSE.
    5. GETTING OF JOB.
    6. CHILD BEARING.
    7. MONEY SPELL.
    8. CURING OF HIV AND MANY MORE.
    9. HERBAL CARE.
    10. BEAUTY SPELL.
    11. BUSINESS CHARMS TO ENQUIRE MORE CUSTOMERS AND LOT’S MORE..

    So brothers and sisters i have tested this man DR. Abu and i have found that he is real and genuine. i am now the happiest woman on earth today, Contact his via email id and be joyful in your life.(oruentempleofpowers@gmail.com
    Tel:+2348059092407).
    More gratitude and thanks to you again the great DOCTOR ABU

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